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نويسندگان : A. Yadollahi     تاريخ انتشار : 30October, 2014
Optimized Root Production During Micropropagation of New Iranian Apple Hybrid Rootstock (AZ X M9): Effects of Fe-EDDHA and Thiamine
Abstract: Objective: In vitro propagation of AZ x M9 new apple rootstock resulted of breeding program of vegetative apple rootstock in Iran was investigated. Methods: Nodal explants were inoculated in Murashige and SKoog (MS) medium supplemented with various concentrations of 6-benzylaminon purine (BAP) (0.4, 0.8 and 1.2 mg/l) alone or with naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) (0.1 mg/l). We examined the effect of different concentrations of iron sequestrene (Fe-EDDHA) and thiamin vitamin


Apple is the third most important fruit crop (64.3 million
t/year) in the world (FAO, 2009). Apple is conventionally
propagated by budding or grafting. In order to
developing apple vegetative rootstocks compatible with
Iran apple cultivation areas soils, some targeted
hybridization was carried out between Iranian dwarf
genotypes and commercial vegetative rootstock (M9) as
maternal and paternal parents, respectively, in Seed and
Plant Improvement Institute, Karaj, Tehran, during
2005–2007. There were many rooting power (main and
adventitious root number) differences among various
obtained offspring which is of high importance in
suitable rootstock establishment in soil and dryness
stress resistance. So that, offspring related to Isfahan
Azayesh as maternal parent showed most appropriate
Traditional propagation methods depend on the season
and typically result in low multiplication rates
Micropropagation methods provide an efficient and
alternative way for the commercial propagation of plants
and among fruits, in vitro propagation of apple rootstocks
has been reported by many authors (Minaev et al., 2003
Kaushal et al., 2005; Dalal et al., 2006; Ciccotti et al
2008). Furthermore, micropropagation allows quick
propagation of new varieties or breeding lines or
variants for apple breeders. It is an essential step in the
success of regeneration of transgenic lines anddetermines the effectiveness of a transformation protocol
(Aldwinckle and Malnoy, 2009). The present study aimed
to investigate micropropagation ability of mentioned
new hybrid apple rootstock


Samples were collected of seedlings established in
Horticultural Research Center (Seed and Plant
Improvement Institute) during June 2011. Axillary and
apical buds of current year shoots (1-2.5 cm) were used
as explants. Explants inoculated in MS (Murashige and
SKoog, 1962) medium supplemented with
concentrations of BAP (6-benzylaminon purine) (0.4, 0.8
and 1.2 mg/l) alone or with NAA (naphthalene acetic
acid) (0.1 mg/l) after disinfection. 0.1 mg/l citric acid
applied during disinfection to prevention of phenol
exudation. Proliferation rate of established explants was
determined after 30 days by estimating the number and
length of regenerated axillary shoots. Two culture media
of LS (Linsmaier and Skoog, 1965) and MS supplemented
with1 mg/l IBA (Indol-3-butric acid), 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2 g/l
Fe-EDDHA and 0, 0.8, 1.6 and 2.4 g/l thiamin. After 30
days root number, length and fresh and dry weights were
determined. 7.5 g/l agar and 30 g/l sucrose was used in
all media and their pH was adjusted to 5.7
lowest shoot length (1.03 cm) was observed in 0.4 mg/l
BAP. Low proliferation rate of 0.8 mg/l BAP treatment
(fig. 1b) confirms Marin et al. (1993) theory which
describes that there is negative relationship between
shoot number and length. Shoot branching depends on
the initiation and activity of axillary meristems, which
are hormonally controlled mainly by cytokinins;
however, they act in interaction with auxins even though
the auxin-effect is indirect (Ward and Leyser, 2004).
Shoot multiplication of apple is based on media
containing cytokinins as the major PGR, in lower
concentration also auxins and the effect of different PGRs
is highly genotype dependent (Dobránszki et al., 2010).
Butiuc-Keul et al. (2010) found that shoot production
increased in apple cultivars in response to BAP in culture
medium. They showed that 1.0 mg/l BAP is adequate for
shoot multiplication. But they obtained the highest length
of shoots in media with 0.5 mg/l BAP irrespective of
apple cultivar 

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دفتر تهران : خیابان کارگر شمالی_ خیابان شهریور_جنب اورژانس بیمارستان قلب پلاک 25 واحد4
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