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نويسندگان :Abbas Yadollahi     تاريخ انتشار : 9December 2014
Effects of nutrient media, different cytokinin types and their concentrations on in vitro multiplication of G Х N15 hybrid of almond Хpeach
Abstract: The objective of this research was to assess the effects of different media i.e. Murashige and Skoog (MS) and Quoirin and Lepoivre (QL), cytokinin type i.e. 6-Benzyladenin (BA) and 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP) and cytokinin concentration on in vitro proliferation of the G · N15 rootstock. To evaluate the effects of different media and cytokinin type, two separate experiments were conducted as factorial based on completely randomized design, and single nodes were used as explants

  Introduction 
Micro-propagation has been considered as an efficient tool formass production of pathogen free and true to type fruit treerootstocks in recent decades in Iran.In order toestablish commercial orchards, production of true to type vegetativerootstocks through tissue culture is a matter of highimportance. In recent years, the use of stone fruit inter-specifichybrids as rootstock has received a proportionate attention indeveloped countries, which in turn solves many problems instone fruit trees . The rootstock G · N15 called ‘‘Garnem"was released in Spain by the Center of Investigation and TechnologyAgri Food of Aragon (CITA). G · N15 is a hybrid between almond (Garfi) and peach (Nemared) which has desirablefeatures such as red leaves, good vigor, easy clonal propagationresistance to root-knot nematodes, and graftcompatibility with the whole range of peach and almond cultivarsas well as some plum and apricot cultivars. The rootstockG · N15 is also suitable for replanting plots, which have beenpreviously planted with peach. Furthermore, it shows verygood performance with almond, both in irrigated and rain fed conditions.In recent years, due to resistance of G · N15 rootstock tonematode and other desirable traits, a rising trend has beenshown toward using G · N15 rootstocks in Iran. Mass production
of G · N15 rootstock by conventional methods like hardwoodand herbaceous cuttings is time-consuming andlaborious. Micro-propagation techniques can enhance scaleand speed of production of healthy plants.Micro-propagation is affected by many factors suchasgenotype, culture medium, and plant growth regulators. One of the most important factors in plant tissue cultureespecially in proliferation stage is cytokinin hormone. It iswell known that cytokinins play multiple roles in the plantdevelopment such as promotion of cell division and cell expansionin plant protein synthesis stimulation and the activities ofsome enzymes. BAP as a synthetic cytokinin in combinationwith appropriate auxins has been used in micro-propagationof nut fruits. BA and BAP are commonly used as cytokininsin prunus rootstock micropropagation. Moreover TDZhas been reported to be appropriate in in vitro proliferationstep of some prunus spp . It is worth mentioning that someinvestigators have reported that TDZ and BA are the cytokinins used the most , while Arinaitwe et al. and Go´ ralski
et al .reported that kinetin and isopentenyl adeninehave been used less
Recently, some researchers have suggested that regression
analysis is one of the most efficient tools to compare the means
of related quantitative treatments such as explant age, hormoneconcentration, and time course.Biological processes
are usually highly complex and difficult to describe accurately
by simple statistical strategies based on analysis of variance
 ANOVA). To identify the most appropriate model, as well)
as to describe the relationship between the treatment levels
and also the response variable, regression analysis is commonlyused.Micropropagation of fruit tree rootstocks plays a veryimportant role in the commercialization of fruit orchards with
desirable traits and disease-free plants. G · N15 is one of the
vigorous vegetative rootstocks for both peach and almond
around the world, and its propagation through tissue culture
in order to establish industrial orchards is essential. Thus
far, many researchers have been focusing on the influence of
different cytokinins such as BAP, BA and TDZ in the proliferation
phase of prunus rootstocks, the effect of medium culture
has received much less attention. However few studies have
reported about the micropropagation of G · N Series. This

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