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: Abbas Yadollahi     تاريخ انتشار : 31st October 2013
Using putrescine to increase the rooting ability of hardwood cuttings of the peach × almond hybrid GF677
GF677 is an interspecific hybrid which has important value in terms of economic and horticultural characteristics. The use of this rootstock for some stone fruit trees including almond and peach has been increased dramatically in recent years. It has some useful characteristics i.e. high tolerance to calcareous soil, a strong root system and suitability for poor soils, but its propagation is difficult. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of putrescine (PUT) on the rooting of GF677 cutti

   INTRODUCTION
Almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.) is one of the oldestnuts in the world and can be consumed asediblefruit and also exploited in the cosmetic industryIt is native to large areas of Iran, TajikistanAfghanistan and west of Pakistan. Over historythe almond has been transferred from abovementionedareas to regions such as the UnitedStates of America, Europe, Australia and AfricaRecently, California has been the biggest producerof almonds in the word. In some areas like Iranthe almond is propagated mainly by seed andthis is one of the main problems for almondproduction because of variations in the qualityand the standardization of crops resulting from itSuch a problem is very important for exports andcan be removed by using appropriate varieties and then grafting them on suitable rootstocksToday across the word, peach rootstocks andinterspecific peach × almond rootstocks are beingused in good fertile soils and Mariana rootstock inheavy and wet soils

MATERIAL AND METHODS
Uniform cuttings of GF677 used for this studywere prepared at the end of the dormant
season during late winter from wood 10±4mm in diameter of maternal plants kept in a
greenhouse. The cuttings were made 20 cmlong. After preliminary washing, cuttings were
dipped into a 3000 mg l–1 solution of the fungicideCaptan (Ariashimi, Iran) for 2 hours and thenthe cuttings were allowed to dry for 20 minutes(Tsipouridis and Thomidis 2004). Before insertionof the cuttings into the rooting media, the bottom2cm part of the cuttings was treated with i) PUT(2 or 4 mM for 5 min), ii) IBA (1500 or 3000 mgl–1 for 5 seconds), iii) a commercial rooting powder(‘Richgro Root Strike’, containing 3 g kg–1 IBARichgro, Australia), and iv) distilled water asthe control treatment. For the preparation of theIBA solution, the required amount of IBA wasdissolved in 20 ml ethanol and then filled to the
desired volume (Hartmann et al. 1997). Withregard to the treatment with commercial rooting
powder, the bottom 2 cm part of the cuttings waswetted with water shortly before being dippedinto the powder in order to help the powderadhere better. Finally, after insertion of cuttingsinto the washed sand medium they were keptunder mist conditions for 120 days. The cuttingswere placed under environmental conditionsfavourable for rooting in which temperature wasadjusted to 25 ºC during the day and 22 ºC duringthe night at 12/12 photoperiod (Tsipouridis andThomidis 2004, Tajbakhsh et al. 2009). Duringthe first month of the experiment, the mistsystem operated for 40 seconds in 20-minuteintervals (40 seconds ON and 20 minutes OFFand for the rest of the experiment, it operated for40 seconds in 50-minute intervals (40 seconds ONand 50 minutes OFF). To reduce the risk of fungal
infections, a 3000 mg l–1 solution of fungicideZineb (Ariashimi, Iran) was applied during the
second stage of the experiment (on day 60At the end of the experiment, data including
the number of rooted cuttings, the number ofadventitious roots, root length, the fresh and
dry weight of roots, the number of lateral shootsshoot length, the fresh and dry weight of shoots internode length and callus formation weremeasured and recorded. The experiment wascarried out based on a completely randomiseddesign (CRD) with 4 replications and 25 cuttingsper each of the replications. A simple regressionanalysis was used to evaluate the correlationbetween basal callus formation, the percentage ofrooted GF677 and the root number of the cuttingsStatistical analysis of the data was carried outusing SPSS 16 software and differences amongthe treatment means were compared usingDuncan’s multiple range test

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دفتر تهران : خیابان کارگر شمالی_ خیابان شهریور_جنب اورژانس بیمارستان قلب پلاک 25 واحد4
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